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      l'H?tel-Dieu de Qubec, 126 and Journal des Jsuites 282.In 1783 the English carriage-builders, who had before been considered inferior in elegance to the French makers, began to receive large orders from Paris itself. In 1759 Walter Taylor and son introduced machinery for cutting blocks, sheaves, and pins for ships. Saw-mills were also introduced into Great Britain, in 1767, by Mr. Dingley, of Limehouse.

      On the evening of the 16th of July Casta?os appeared on the Argonilla, directly opposite to Andujar; the river was fordable in many places from the drought, and the different divisions of the Spaniards crossed in the night. Vedel, seeing the critical situation of the French army, made a rapid movement to regain and keep open the mountainous defile by which he had arrived, but Dupont remained at Andujar till the night of the 18th. Vedel remaining at the pass for Dupont, the latter found himself intercepted at Baylen by the Swiss General, Reding, and whilst engaging him his own Swiss troops went over to Reding. He sent expresses to Vedel to return to his aid, but before this could be accomplished he was defeated, and compelled to surrender. He was enormously encumbered by baggage; for the French, as usual, utterly regardless of the necessity of keeping on good terms with a people over whom they wished to rule, had been pillaging churches and houses of all plate and valuables that they could find. In endeavouring to defend the baggage, Dupont had weakened his front, and occasioned his repulse. Casta?os had not perceived the march of the French; but, by the time his van came up with Reding, he found the French army prisoners. The terms proposed by the French were that they should be allowed to retire upon Madrid with all their arms and baggage. But Casta?os was too well acquainted with the necessities of the French through the intercepted letter to Savary. He insisted that they should pile their arms, give up the greater part of their spoil, and be sent down to San Lucar and Rota, where they should be embarked for France. Whilst Dupont was hesitating on these conditions, he received a note from Vedel, proposing that they should make a simultaneous attack on the Spaniards, and thus have a fresh chance of turning the scale in their own favour. But Dupont saw that this was hopeless; and, moreover, it is said that Casta?os insisted that if Vedel himself did not immediately[556] lay down his arms, he would shoot Dupont. Vedel, who now saw little hope of cutting his way through the mountains, was compelled to obey. The French piled their arms on the 22nd of July, the prisoners amounting to between eighteen and nineteen thousand. They gave up also thirty pieces of cannon.[See larger version]

      Least of all did the ambitious designs of the Czarina Catherine against Turkey seem menacing to us; yet these designs speedily drew into their current the whole power of Austria, endangered our relations with the countries on the Baltic, and attracted the revolutionary torrent over the fertile plains of the Netherlands, opposite to our own shores, menacing the stability of our allies, the Dutch. Catherine had found the Turks not so easily to be overcome as she imagined, feeble and tottering as she considered their empire. The absorption of the Ottoman kingdom and the establishment of the Muscovite throne at Constantinople had been her confident dream. But the Turks, though in a condition of decline and disorganisation which promised an easy subjugation[350] of them, had still their spirit of fanatic fatalism, which could rouse them to deeds of impetuous valour. The whole organisation and regulations of their army were in the worst condition. The janissaries, which had been amongst the finest infantry in the world, were now thoroughly demoralised and in insolent insubordination towards their own government. Their cavalry was numerous, but wretchedly disciplined. The commissariat was in the worst state conceivable, and their artillery, though it had received the energetic attentions of the French Baron De Toff, was contemptible. It might have appeared that nothing was necessary but to enter Turkey and drive the army, as a disorganised rabble, before the foe. But Catherine had not found it so. Her favourite, Potemkin, had been repeatedly defeated in his attempts to advance into Turkey from the Crimea, and Catherine had been glad to engage Joseph II. of Austria in the enterprise by a promise of an ample share of the spoil. In fact, the pair contemplated something like a partition of Europe. In their meeting at Cherson in 1787, Joseph had engaged to send one hundred thousand men to the campaign against Turkey. He had no quarrel with the Sultan, and though a zealous advocate for national reforms, he paid very little regard to national or international justice. In all his reforms, Joseph, with true Austrian spirit, showed the despot still. He did not attempt to carry such reforms as his subjects desired, but such as he thought proper for them; and he was always ready to force what he deemed liberalism and improvement upon them at the point of the bayonet. In attacking Turkey, he did not wait to proclaim war, much less to have a pretence for it, but he suddenly made a rush upon the neighbouring city and frontier fortress of Belgrade. The Turks, though taken by surprise, defended the place victoriously; and Joseph's subsequent assault on the fortress of Gradiska was equally unsuccessful and equally disgraceful.

      On the 26th Blucher had nearly annihilated the division of Macdonald. No sooner did he learn the return of Buonaparte to Dresden than he wheeled round upon Macdonald, taking him by surprise, and driving his troops into the rivers[70] Katzbach and Neisse, swollen by the rains. The battle raged the most fiercely near Wahlstadt, and, on the subsidence of the floods, hundreds of corpses were seen sticking in the mud. A part of the French fled for a couple of days in terrible disorder along the right bank of the Neisse, and were captured, with their general, by the Russian commander, Langeron.


      auspices, and a large part to natural increase, which was


      Sympathy in Ireland for the French RevolutionIntrigues with the FrenchAttitude of the Roman CatholicsFailure of Fitzwilliam's Efforts at ReformOpen Rebellion beginsThe Mission of Fitzgerald and O'Connor to FranceDisclosure of the ConspiracyArrest of Fitzgerald and his ConfederatesOutbreak of the RebellionBattle of Vinegar HillArrival of Humbert's ExpeditionIts brief Success and SurrenderSuicide of Wolfe ToneDesire of France to invade EnglandNapoleon advises the Expedition to EgyptHe gives Nelson the slipHis gigantic ProjectsSurrender of MaltaNelson's PursuitNapoleon's CampaignBattle of the PyramidsSurrender of CairoBattle of the Nile (or Aboukir Bay)Pitt's second CoalitionThe Income TaxProjected union of Great Britain and IrelandProclamation of the Parthenopean RepublicItaly regained by the CoalitionSuppression of the Revolution in NaplesThe Allies in HollandNapoleon's March into SyriaHis Defeat at AcreBattle of AboukirNapoleon returns to FranceCoup d'tat of the 18th BrumaireDeath of Tippoo SahibNapoleon's Letter to the KingThe union with IrelandMeans by which it was carriedIts Reception in EnglandNapoleon Crosses the AlpsBattle of MarengoThe French recover LombardyBattle of HohenlindenTreaty of LunvilleCorn RiotsBreach with RussiaPitt's ResignationThe King's IllnessThe Addington MinistryRevival of the Armed NeutralityBattle of CopenhagenPeace between Britain and the Northern PowersThe Expedition to EgyptBattle of AlexandriaEvacuation of Egypt by the FrenchNegotiations for PeaceTreaty of Amiens.The Baron Dubois dAvaugour arrived to take his place. He was an old soldier of forty years service, *** blunt, imperative, and sometimes obstinate to perverseness; but full of energy, and of a probity which even his enemies confessed. He served a long time in Germany while you were there, writes the minister Colbert to the Marquis de Tracy, and you must have known his talents, as well as his bizarre and somewhat impracticable temper. On landing, he would have no reception, being, as Father Lalemant observes, an enemy of all ceremony. He went, however, to see the Jesuits, and took a morsel of food in our refectory. **** Laval was prepared to receive


      [340]SURRENDER OF THE PEISHWA. (See p. 141.)